Skip navigation.


Printer-friendly versionSend by email


Chen, M., Vernon, C.R., Huang, M., Calvin, K.V. and Kraucunas, I.P., 2019. Calibration and analysis of the uncertainty in downscaling global land use and land cover projections from GCAM using Demeter (v1. 0.0). Geoscientific Model Development12(5), pp.1753-1764.

De Alban, J.D.T., Prescott, G.W., Woods, K.M., Jamaludin, J., Latt, K.T., Lim, C.L., Maung, A.C. and Webb, E.L., 2019. Integrating Analytical Frameworks to Investigate Land-Cover Regime Shifts in Dynamic Landscapes. Sustainability11(4), p.1139.

Estoque, R.C., Ooba, M., Avitabile, V., Hijioka, Y., DasGupta, R., Togawa, T. and Murayama, Y., 2019. The future of Southeast Asia's forests. Nature Communications, 10, pp.1-12.

Forkel, M., Andela, N., P Harrison, S., Lasslop, G., Van Marle, M., Chuvieco, E., Dorigo, W., Forrest, M., Hantson, S., Heil, A. and Li, F., 2019. Emergent relationships with respect to burned area in global satellite observations and fire-enabled vegetation models. Biogeosciences, 16, pp.57-76.

Georgievski, G. & Hagemann, S., 2019. Characterizing uncertainties in the ESA-CCI land cover map of the epoch 2010 and their impacts on MPI-ESM climate simulations. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 137 p.1587. (DOI:

Guidigan, M.L.G., Sanou, C.L., Ragatoa, D.S., Fafa, C.O. and Mishra, V.N., 2019. Assessing Land Use/Land Cover Dynamic and Its Impact in Benin Republic Using Land Change Model and CCI-LC Products. Earth Systems and Environment, 3(1), pp.127-137.

Guo, L., Sun, F., Liu, W., Zhang, Y., Wang, H., Cui, H., Wang, H., Zhang, J., Du, B., 2019. Response of Ecosystem Water Use Efficiency to Drought over China during 1982–2015: Spatiotemporal Variability and Resilience. Forests, 10, p.598. 

Hidalgo, J., Lemonsu, A. and Masson, V., 2019. Between progress and obstacles in urban climate interdisciplinary studies and knowledge transfer to society. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1436(1), pp.5-18.

Landholm, D.M., Pradhan, P. and Kropp, J.P., 2019. Diverging forest land use dynamics induced by armed conflict across the tropics. Global Environmental Change56, pp.86-94.

Li, J., Chen, H., Zhang, C. and Pan, T., 2019. Variations in ecosystem service value in response to land use/land cover changes in Central Asia over 1995-2035 (No. e27645v1). PeerJ Preprints.

Mousivand, A. and Arsanjani, J.J., 2019. Insights on the historical and emerging global land cover changes: The case of ESA-CCI-LC datasets. Applied Geography106, pp.82-92.

Nowosad, J., Stepinski, T.F. and Netzel, P., 2019. Global assessment and mapping of changes in mesoscale landscapes: 1992–2015. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 78, pp.332-340.

Obu, J., Westermann, S., Bartsch, A., Berdnikov, N., Christiansen, H.H., Dashtseren, A., Delaloye, R., Elberling, B., Etzelmüller, B., Kholodov, A. and Khomutov, A., 2019. Northern Hemisphere permafrost map based on TTOP modelling for 2000–2016 at 1 km2 scale. Earth-Science Reviews, 193, pp.299-316.

Prósper, M., Sosa Tinoco, I., Otero Casal, C. & Miguez-Macho, G., 2019. Downslope windstorms in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec during Tehuantepecer events: a numerical study with WRF high-resolution simulations. Earth System Dynamics, 10, pp. 485-499. 

Romijn, E., Coppus, R., De Sy, V., Herold, M., Roman-Cuesta, R.M. and Verchot, L., 2019. Land Restoration in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview of Recent, Ongoing and Planned Restoration Initiatives and Their Potential for Climate Change Mitigation. Forests10(6), p.510.

Santini, L., Butchart, S.H., Rondinini, C., Benítez‐López, A., Hilbers, J.P., Schipper, A.M., Cengic, M., Tobias, J.A. and Huijbregts, M.A., 2019. Applying habitat and population‐density models to land‐cover time series to inform IUCN Red List assessments. Conservation Biology.

Schepaschenko, D., See, L., Lesiv, M., Bastin, J.F., Mollicone, D., Tsendbazar, N.E., Bastin, L., McCallum, I., Bayas, J.C.L., Baklanov, A. and Perger, C., 2019. Recent Advances in Forest Observation with Visual Interpretation of Very High-Resolution Imagery. Surveys in Geophysics, 40(4), pp.839–862.

Sims, N.C., England, J.R., Newnham, G.J., Alexander, S., Green, C., Minelli, S. and Held, A., 2019. Developing good practice guidance for estimating land degradation in the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Environmental Science & Policy92, pp.349-355.

Su, L., Li, J., Shi, X. and Fung, J.C., 2019. Spatiotemporal variation in pre‐summer precipitation over South China from 1979 to 2015 and its relationship with urbanization. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

van Vliet, J., 2019. Direct and indirect loss of natural area from urban expansion. Nature Sustainability. (DOI:

Vilar, L., Garrido, J., Echavarría, P., Martínez-Vega, J. and Martín, M.P., 2019. Comparative analysis of CORINE and climate change initiative land cover maps in Europe: Implications for wildfire occurrence estimation at regional and local scales. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation78, pp.102-117.

Waldner, F., Schucknecht, A., Lesiv, M., Gallego, J., See, L., Pérez-Hoyos, A., d'Andrimont, R., De Maet, T., Bayas, J.C.L., Fritz, S. and Leo, O., 2019. Conflation of expert and crowd reference data to validate global binary thematic maps. Remote Sensing of Environment221, pp.235-246.

Xu, X., Jain, A.K. and Calvin, K.V., 2019. Quantifying the biophysical and socioeconomic drivers of changes in forest and agricultural land in South and Southeast Asia. Global Change Biology, 25(6), pp.2137-2151.

Yebra, M., Scortechini, G., Badi, A., Beget, M.E., Boer, M.M., Bradstock, R., Chuvieco, E., Danson, F.M., Dennison, P., de Dios, V.R. and Di Bella, C.M., 2019. Globe-LFMC, a global plant water status database for vegetation ecophysiology and wildfire applications. Scientific data6(1), pp.1-8.


Duveiller, G., Hooker, J., and Cescatti, A., 2018. The mark of vegetation change on Earth’s surface energy balance. Nature communications, 9(1), p.679.

Duveiller, G., Hooker, J., and Cescatti, A., 2018. A dataset mapping the potential biophysical effects of vegetation cover change. Scientific data, 5, p.180014.

Estoque, R.C., Pontius Jr, R.G., Murayama, Y., Hou, H., Thapa, R.B., Lasco, R.D. and Villar, M.A., 2018. Simultaneous comparison and assessment of eight remotely sensed maps of Philippine forests. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 67, pp.123-134.

Hua, T., Zhao, W., Liu, Y., Wang, S. and Yang, S., 2018. Spatial Consistency Assessments for Global Land-Cover Datasets: A Comparison among GLC2000, CCI LC, MCD12, GLOBCOVER and GLCNMO. Remote Sensing, 10(11), p.1846.

Li, W., MacBean, N., Ciais, P., Defourny, P., Lamarche, C., Bontemps, S., Houghton, R. A., and Peng, S., 2018. Gross and net land cover changes in the main plant functional types derived from the annual ESA CCI land cover maps (1992–2015), Earth System Science Data, 10, 219-234, (DOI:

Liu, X., Yu, L., Si, Y., Zhang, C., Lu, H., Yu, C. and Gong, P., 2018. Identifying patterns and hotspots of global land cover transitions using the ESA CCI Land Cover dataset. Remote sensing letters, 9(10), pp.972-981.

Liu, X., Yu, L., Li, W., Peng, D., Zhong, L., Li, L., Xin, Q., Lu, H., Yu, C. and Gong, P., 2018. Comparison of country-level cropland areas between ESA-CCI land cover maps and FAOSTAT data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 39(20), pp.6631-6645.

Schmidt, S., Alewell, C. and Meusburger, K., 2018. Change of permanent grasslands extent (1996-2015) and national grassland dataset of Switzerland. Data in brief, 20, pp.1992-1998.

Toté, C., Swinnen, E., Sterckx, S., Adriaensen, S., Benhadj, I., Iordache, M.D., Bertels, L., Kirches, G., Stelzer, K., Dierckx, W. and Van den Heuvel, L., 2018. Evaluation of PROBA-V Collection 1: Refined Radiometry, Geometry, and Cloud Screening. Remote Sensing, 10(9), p.1375.

Wang, L., Bartlett, P., Chan, E. and Xiao, M., 2018, July. Mapping of Plant Functional Type from Satellite-Derived Land Cover Datasets for Climate Models. In IGARSS 2018-2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (pp. 3416-3419). IEEE.


Lauer, A., Eyring, V., Righi, M., Buchwitz, M., Defourny, P., Evaldsson, M., Friedlingstein, P., de Jeu, R., de Leeuw, G., Loew, A. and Merchant, C.J., 2017. Benchmarking CMIP5 models with a subset of ESA CCI Phase 2 data using the ESMValTool. Remote Sensing of Environment, 203, pp.9-39.

Lamarche, C., Santoro, M., Bontemps, S., d’Andrimont, R., Radoux, J., Giustarini, L., Brockmann, C., Wevers, J., Defourny, P. and Arino, O., 2017. Compilation and Validation of SAR and Optical Data Products for a Complete and Global Map of Inland/Ocean Water Tailored to the Climate Modeling Community. Remote Sensing, 9, p.36. 

Hartley, A.J., MacBean, N., Georgievski, G. and Bontemps, S., 2017. Uncertainty in plant functional type distributions and its impact on land surface models. Remote Sensing of Environment203, pp.71-89.


Eberenz, J., Verbesselt, J., Herold, M., Tsendbazar, N.-E., Sabatino, G., Rivolta, G., 2016. Evaluating the Potential of PROBA-V Satellite Image Time Series for Improving LC Classification in Semi-Arid African Landscapes. Remote Sensing, 8, p.987. 

Harper, A. B., Cox, P. M., Friedlingstein, P., Wiltshire, A. J., Jones, C. D., Sitch, S., Mercado, L. M., Groenendijk, M., Robertson, E., Kattge, J., Bönisch, G., Atkin, O. K., Bahn, M., Cornelissen, J., Niinemets, Ü., Onipchenko, V., Peñuelas, J., Poorter, L., Reich, P. B., Soudzilovskaia, N. A., and Bodegom, P. V., 2016. Improved representation of plant functional types and physiology in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES v4.2) using plant trait information, Geoscientific Model Development, 9, 2415-2440, (DOI:

Herold, M., See, L., Tsendbazar, N.-E. and Fritz, S. 2016. Towards an Integrated Global Land Cover Monitoring and Mapping System. Remote Sensing, 8, p.1036. (DOI:


Poulter, B., MacBean, N., Hartley, A., Khlystova, I., Arino, O., Betts, R., Bontemps, S., Boettcher, M., Brockmann, C., Defourny, P., Hagemann, S., Herold, M., Kirches, G., Lamarche, C., Lederer, D., Ottlé, C., Peters, M., and Peylin, P., 2015. Plant functional type classification for earth system models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative, Geoscientific Model Development, 8, pp.2315-2328, (DOI:


Radoux, J., Lamarche, C., Van Bogaert, E., Bontemps, S., Brockmann, C. and Defourny, P., 2014. Automated training sample extraction for global land cover mapping. Remote Sensing, 6(5), pp.3965-3987.


Hollmann, R., Merchant, C.J., Saunders, R., Downy, C., Buchwitz, M., Cazenave, A., Chuvieco, E., Defourny, P., de Leeuw, G., Forsberg, R. and Holzer-Popp, T., 2013. The ESA climate change initiative: Satellite data records for essential climate variables. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94(10), pp.1541-1552.

Gamba, P. and Lisini, G., 2013. Fast and efficient urban extent extraction using ASAR Wide Swath Mode data. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, 6(5), 2184-2195, (DOI: 10.1109/JSTARS.2012.2235410).

Ottle, C., Lescure, J., Maignan, F., Poulter, B., Wang, T. and Delbart, N., 2013. Use of various remote sensing land cover products for PFT mapping over Siberia. Earth System Science Data Discussions, 6, pp.255-296.

Santoro, M. and Wegmüller, U., 2013. Multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar metrics applied to map open water bodies. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 7(8), pp.3225-3238.


Bontemps, S., Herold, M., Kooistra, L., van Groenestijn, A., Hartley, A., Arino, O., Moreau, I. and Defourny, P., 2012. Revisiting land cover observation to address the needs of the climate modelling community, Biogeosciences, 9, pp.2145-2157


Poulter, B., Ciais, P., Hodson, E., Lischke, H., Maignan, F., Plummer, S. and Zimmermann, N.E., 2011. Plant functional type mapping for Earth System Models. Geoscientific Model Development, 4, pp.1-18, (DOI: 10.5194/gmd-4-1-2011).


CCI Land Cover products

  Land cover maps Land cover maps Land cover maps